A superconducting condensate is characterized by the emergence of macroscopic and collective order, established between its constituent electrons. The degree of correlation at a given spatial position is a complex scalar: it is characterized both by an amplitude (proportional to the minimal energy to generate a fundamental excitation) and a complex phase. Through its gradient, the latter enables the flow of the condensate, demonstrating the quantum fingerprint of superconductivity. Superconductors exhibit strong coupling to electromagnetic fields, so that phase-dependent dissipationless transport through “weak link” circuital elements is easily manipulated by applying voltage or magnetic flux bias to superconducting terminals and loops, respectively. For these reasons, superconducting electronics is nowadays a core technology to enable robust access and manipulation of the fundamental degrees of freedom in quantum devices, from ultrasensitive electromagnetic sensors to superconducting qubits. In this work, we explore different designs of micro-magnetometers based on superconducting interferometers. Differently from conventional designs based on Superconductor, Insulator, Superconductor (SIS) tunnel junctions, here the core elements are nanoscale diffusive metal wires acting as superconducting weak links. These consist in circuital dishomogeneities that can be fabricated over scales much smaller than typical superconductor coherence lengths, typically yielding unique response properties. On the other hand, their intrinsic transparency is usually associated with strong supercurrent concentration, which can severely limit their practicality due to superconducting depairing and thermal-driven hysteresis upon switching to the dissipative regime. In this thesis we demonstrate how a judicious use of nanofabricated designs makes it possible to counter these drawbacks and achieve complete phase polarization in interferometers based on diffusive weak links. The resulting micro-magnetometers are characterized by extremely high magnetic responsivity.
Optimal phase bias in superconducting interferometers / Ronzani, Alberto. - (2019).
|Titolo:||Optimal phase bias in superconducting interferometers|
|Supervisore interno:||Giovannetti, Vittorio|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2019|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||FIS/03 FISICA DELLA MATERIA|
|Parole chiave (inglese):||condensed-matter physics|
|Editore:||Scuola Normale Superiore|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||9.1 Tesi di Dottorato|