Bowel inflammation, impaired intestinal epithelial barrier (IEB), and gut dysbiosis could represent early events in Parkinson’s disease (PD). This study examined, in a descriptive manner, the correlation among enteric α-synuclein, bowel inflammation, impairments of IEB and alterations of enteric bacteria in a transgenic (Tg) model of PD before brain pathology. Human A53T α-synuclein Tg mice were sacrificed at 3, 6, and 9 months of age to evaluate concomitance of enteric inflammation, IEB impairments, and enteric bacterial metabolite alterations during the early phases of α-synucleinopathy. The molecular mechanisms underlying the interplay between α-synuclein, activation of immune/inflammatory responses and IEB alterations were investigated with in vitro experiments in cell cultures. Tg mice displayed an increase in colonic levels of IL-1β, TNF, caspase-1 activity and enteric glia activation since 3 months of age. Colonic TLR-2 and zonulin-1 expression were altered in Tg mice as compared with controls. Lipopolysaccharide levels were increased in Tg animals at 3 months, while fecal butyrate and propionate levels were decreased. Co-treatment with lipopolysaccharide and α-synuclein promoted IL-1β release in the supernatant of THP-1 cells. When applied to Caco-2 cells, the THP- 1-derived supernatant decreased zonulin-1 and occludin expression. Such an effect was abrogated when THP-1 cells were incubated with YVAD (caspase-1 inhibitor) or when Caco-2 were incubated with anakinra, while butyrate incubation did not prevent such decrease. Taken together, early enteric α-synuclein accumulation contributes to compromise IEB through the direct activation of canonical caspase-1-dependent inflammasome signaling. These changes could contribute both to bowel symptoms as well as central pathology.

Bowel inflammation, impaired intestinal epithelial barrier (IEB), and gut dysbiosis could represent early events in Parkinson’s disease (PD). This study examined, in a descriptive manner, the correlation among enteric α-synuclein, bowel inflammation, impairments of IEB and alterations of enteric bacteria in a transgenic (Tg) model of PD before brain pathology. Human A53T α-synuclein Tg mice were sacrificed at 3, 6, and 9 months of age to evaluate concomitance of enteric inflammation, IEB impairments, and enteric bacterial metabolite alterations during the early phases of α-synucleinopathy. The molecular mechanisms underlying the interplay between α-synuclein, activation of immune/inflammatory responses and IEB alterations were investigated with in vitro experiments in cell cultures. Tg mice displayed an increase in colonic levels of IL-1β, TNF, caspase-1 activity and enteric glia activation since 3 months of age. Colonic TLR-2 and zonulin-1 expression were altered in Tg mice as compared with controls. Lipopolysaccharide levels were increased in Tg animals at 3 months, while fecal butyrate and propionate levels were decreased. Co-treatment with lipopolysaccharide and α-synuclein promoted IL-1β release in the supernatant of THP-1 cells. When applied to Caco-2 cells, the THP-1-derived supernatant decreased zonulin-1 and occludin expression. Such an effect was abrogated when THP-1 cells were incubated with YVAD (caspase-1 inhibitor) or when Caco-2 were incubated with anakinra, while butyrate incubation did not prevent such decrease. Taken together, early enteric α-synuclein accumulation contributes to compromise IEB through the direct activation of canonical caspase-1-dependent inflammasome signaling. These changes could contribute both to bowel symptoms as well as central pathology.

Enteric α-synuclein impairs intestinal epithelial barrier through caspase-1-inflammasome signaling in Parkinson's disease before brain pathology

Fabiana Miraglia;Lucia Rota;Giovanna Testa;Simona Capsoni;Antonino Cattaneo;Emanuela Colla;
2022

Abstract

Bowel inflammation, impaired intestinal epithelial barrier (IEB), and gut dysbiosis could represent early events in Parkinson’s disease (PD). This study examined, in a descriptive manner, the correlation among enteric α-synuclein, bowel inflammation, impairments of IEB and alterations of enteric bacteria in a transgenic (Tg) model of PD before brain pathology. Human A53T α-synuclein Tg mice were sacrificed at 3, 6, and 9 months of age to evaluate concomitance of enteric inflammation, IEB impairments, and enteric bacterial metabolite alterations during the early phases of α-synucleinopathy. The molecular mechanisms underlying the interplay between α-synuclein, activation of immune/inflammatory responses and IEB alterations were investigated with in vitro experiments in cell cultures. Tg mice displayed an increase in colonic levels of IL-1β, TNF, caspase-1 activity and enteric glia activation since 3 months of age. Colonic TLR-2 and zonulin-1 expression were altered in Tg mice as compared with controls. Lipopolysaccharide levels were increased in Tg animals at 3 months, while fecal butyrate and propionate levels were decreased. Co-treatment with lipopolysaccharide and α-synuclein promoted IL-1β release in the supernatant of THP-1 cells. When applied to Caco-2 cells, the THP-1-derived supernatant decreased zonulin-1 and occludin expression. Such an effect was abrogated when THP-1 cells were incubated with YVAD (caspase-1 inhibitor) or when Caco-2 were incubated with anakinra, while butyrate incubation did not prevent such decrease. Taken together, early enteric α-synuclein accumulation contributes to compromise IEB through the direct activation of canonical caspase-1-dependent inflammasome signaling. These changes could contribute both to bowel symptoms as well as central pathology.
2022
Settore BIO/09 - Fisiologia
Settore BIO/11 - Biologia Molecolare
Settore BIO/17 - Istologia
Settore BIO/10 - Biochimica
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11384/108744
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