For large-scale graphene applications, such as the production of polymer-graphene nanocomposites, exfoliated graphene oxide (GO) and its reduced form (rGO) are presently considered to be very suitable starting materials, showing enhanced chemical reactivity with respect to pristine graphene, in addition to suitable electronic properties (i.e., tunable band gap). Among other chemical processes, a suitable way to obtain surface decoration of graphene is through a direct one-step Diels-Alder (DA) reaction, e.g. through the use of dienophile or diene moieties. However, the feasibility and extent of decoration largely depends on the specific graphene microstructure that in the case of rGO sheets is not easy to control and generally presents a high degree of inhomogeneity owing to various on-plane functionalization (e.g., epoxide and hydroxyl groups) or in-plane lattice defects. In an effort to gain some insights into the covalent functionalization of variably reduced GO samples, we present a combined experimental and theoretical study on the DA cycloaddition reaction of maleimide, a dienophile functional unit well-suited for chemical conjugation of polymers and macromolecules. In particular, we considered both mildly and strongly reduced GOs. Using thermogravimetry, Raman and X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and elemental analysis we show evidence of variable chemical reactivity of rGO as a function of the residual oxygen content. Moreover, from quantum mechanical calculations carried out at the DFT level on different graphene reaction sites, we provide a more detailed molecular view to interpret experimental findings and to assess the reactivity series of different graphene modifications. This journal is

One-step functionalization of mildly and strongly reduced graphene oxide with maleimide: An experimental and theoretical investigation of the Diels-Alder [4+2] cycloaddition reaction

Ferretti A.;Sinha S.;Sagresti L.;Prato M.;Pucci A.;Brancato G.
2022

Abstract

For large-scale graphene applications, such as the production of polymer-graphene nanocomposites, exfoliated graphene oxide (GO) and its reduced form (rGO) are presently considered to be very suitable starting materials, showing enhanced chemical reactivity with respect to pristine graphene, in addition to suitable electronic properties (i.e., tunable band gap). Among other chemical processes, a suitable way to obtain surface decoration of graphene is through a direct one-step Diels-Alder (DA) reaction, e.g. through the use of dienophile or diene moieties. However, the feasibility and extent of decoration largely depends on the specific graphene microstructure that in the case of rGO sheets is not easy to control and generally presents a high degree of inhomogeneity owing to various on-plane functionalization (e.g., epoxide and hydroxyl groups) or in-plane lattice defects. In an effort to gain some insights into the covalent functionalization of variably reduced GO samples, we present a combined experimental and theoretical study on the DA cycloaddition reaction of maleimide, a dienophile functional unit well-suited for chemical conjugation of polymers and macromolecules. In particular, we considered both mildly and strongly reduced GOs. Using thermogravimetry, Raman and X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and elemental analysis we show evidence of variable chemical reactivity of rGO as a function of the residual oxygen content. Moreover, from quantum mechanical calculations carried out at the DFT level on different graphene reaction sites, we provide a more detailed molecular view to interpret experimental findings and to assess the reactivity series of different graphene modifications. This journal is
Settore CHIM/02 - Chimica Fisica
Reduced graphene oxide, Diels-Alder reaction, Maleimide, Defects, DFT, Kinetics
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11384/113526
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