Gene expression in the brain is dramatically regulated by a variety of stimuli. While the role of neural activity has been extensively studied, less is known about the effects of metabolism and nutrition on transcriptional control mechanisms in the brain. Extracellular signals are integrated at the chromatin level through dynamic modifications of epigenetic marks, which in turn fine-tune gene transcription. In the last twenty years, it has become clear that epigenetics plays a crucial role in modulating central nervous system functions and finally behavior. Here, we will focus on the effect of metabolic signals in shaping brain DNA methylation, both during development and adulthood. We will provide an overview of maternal nutrition effects on brain methylation and behavior in offspring. In addition, the impact of different diet challenges on cytosine methylation dynamics in the adult brain will be discussed. Finally, the possible role played by the metabolic status in modulating DNA hydroxymethylation, which is particularly abundant in neural tissue, will be considered.

Interplay between Metabolism, Nutrition and Epigenetics in Shaping Brain DNA Methylation, Neural Function and Behavior

Pizzorusso, Tommaso
;
Tognini, Paola
2020

Abstract

Gene expression in the brain is dramatically regulated by a variety of stimuli. While the role of neural activity has been extensively studied, less is known about the effects of metabolism and nutrition on transcriptional control mechanisms in the brain. Extracellular signals are integrated at the chromatin level through dynamic modifications of epigenetic marks, which in turn fine-tune gene transcription. In the last twenty years, it has become clear that epigenetics plays a crucial role in modulating central nervous system functions and finally behavior. Here, we will focus on the effect of metabolic signals in shaping brain DNA methylation, both during development and adulthood. We will provide an overview of maternal nutrition effects on brain methylation and behavior in offspring. In addition, the impact of different diet challenges on cytosine methylation dynamics in the adult brain will be discussed. Finally, the possible role played by the metabolic status in modulating DNA hydroxymethylation, which is particularly abundant in neural tissue, will be considered.
Settore BIO/09 - Fisiologia
DNA hydroxymethylation; DNA methylation; brain; metabolism; nutrition; Animals; Brain; Female; Pregnancy; Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects; DNA Methylation; Epigenesis, Genetic; Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Horizon 2020
749697
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11384/124367
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