The outstanding mass growth of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) at the epoch of reionisation and its relation to the concurrent growth of their host galaxies poses challenges to theoretical models aimed at explaining how these systems formed on short timescales (< 1 Gyr). To trace the average evolutionary paths of quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) and their host galaxies in the plane of BH mass to host mass (Mdyn), we compare the star formation rate (SFR), derived from the accurate estimate of the dust temperature and the dust mass (Tdust, Mdust) based on infrared and sub-millimeter (sub-mm) spectral energy distribution (SED), with the BH accretion rate, derived from Lbol based on X-ray and optical and ultraviolet SED. To this aim, we analysed a deep ALMA observation of the sub-mm continuum, [CII], and H2O of the z ∼ 6 QSO J2310+1855 with a resolution of 900 pc, which enabled a detailed study of dust properties and cold gas kinematics. We performed an accurate SED analysis obtaining a dust temperature of Tdust = 71 ± 4 K, dust mass Mdust = (4.4 ± 0.7)×108 M⊙, and total far-infrared luminosity of LTIR = 2.5−0.5+0.6 × 1013 L⊙. The implied active galactic nuclei (AGN) – corrected SFR = 1240−260+310 M⊙ yr−1 is a factor of 2 lower than previously reported for this QSO. We measured a gas-to-dust ratio of GDR = 101 ± 20. The dust continuum and [CII] surface brightness profiles are spatially extended out to r ∼ 6.7 kpc and r ∼ 5 kpc, respectively, with half-light radii of 0.9 and 1.1 kpc for the dust and gas, respectively. The derived gas surface density, Σgas, and star formation rate density, ΣSFR, place the J2310+1855 host galaxy above the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation. We derived a best estimate of the dynamical mass Mdyn = 5.2 × 1010 M⊙ within r = 1.7 kpc based on a dynamical model of the system with a rotating disk inclined at i = 25 deg. The Toomre parameter profile across the disk is Qgas ∼ 3 and implies that the disk is unstable. We found that SFR/Mdyn > ṀBH/MBH, suggesting that AGN feedback might be efficiently acting to slow down the SMBH accretion, while stellar mass assembly is still vigorously taking place in the host galaxy. In addition, we were also able to detect high-velocity emission on the red and blue sides of the [CII] emission line that is not consistent with disk rotation and traces a gaseous outflow. We derived an outflow mass Mout = 3.5 × 108 M⊙, and a mass outflow rate in the range Ṁout = 1800 − 4500 M⊙ yr−1. The implied Ėout ∼ 0.0005 − 0.001 Lbol is in agreement with the values observed for ionised winds. For the first time, we mapped a spatially resolved water vapour disk through the H2O v = 0 3(2, 2) − 3(1, 3) emission line detected at νobs = 274.074 GHz, whose kinematic properties and size are broadly consistent with those of the [CII] disk. The luminosity ratio LH2O/LTIR = 1.4 × 10−5 is consistent with line excitation by dust-reprocessed star formation in the interstellar medium of the host galaxy.

Black hole and host galaxy growth in an isolated z 6 QSO observed with ALMA

D'Odorico V.;Carniani S.;Gallerani S.;Pallottini A.;Vallini L.;Zana T.
2022

Abstract

The outstanding mass growth of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) at the epoch of reionisation and its relation to the concurrent growth of their host galaxies poses challenges to theoretical models aimed at explaining how these systems formed on short timescales (< 1 Gyr). To trace the average evolutionary paths of quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) and their host galaxies in the plane of BH mass to host mass (Mdyn), we compare the star formation rate (SFR), derived from the accurate estimate of the dust temperature and the dust mass (Tdust, Mdust) based on infrared and sub-millimeter (sub-mm) spectral energy distribution (SED), with the BH accretion rate, derived from Lbol based on X-ray and optical and ultraviolet SED. To this aim, we analysed a deep ALMA observation of the sub-mm continuum, [CII], and H2O of the z ∼ 6 QSO J2310+1855 with a resolution of 900 pc, which enabled a detailed study of dust properties and cold gas kinematics. We performed an accurate SED analysis obtaining a dust temperature of Tdust = 71 ± 4 K, dust mass Mdust = (4.4 ± 0.7)×108 M⊙, and total far-infrared luminosity of LTIR = 2.5−0.5+0.6 × 1013 L⊙. The implied active galactic nuclei (AGN) – corrected SFR = 1240−260+310 M⊙ yr−1 is a factor of 2 lower than previously reported for this QSO. We measured a gas-to-dust ratio of GDR = 101 ± 20. The dust continuum and [CII] surface brightness profiles are spatially extended out to r ∼ 6.7 kpc and r ∼ 5 kpc, respectively, with half-light radii of 0.9 and 1.1 kpc for the dust and gas, respectively. The derived gas surface density, Σgas, and star formation rate density, ΣSFR, place the J2310+1855 host galaxy above the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation. We derived a best estimate of the dynamical mass Mdyn = 5.2 × 1010 M⊙ within r = 1.7 kpc based on a dynamical model of the system with a rotating disk inclined at i = 25 deg. The Toomre parameter profile across the disk is Qgas ∼ 3 and implies that the disk is unstable. We found that SFR/Mdyn > ṀBH/MBH, suggesting that AGN feedback might be efficiently acting to slow down the SMBH accretion, while stellar mass assembly is still vigorously taking place in the host galaxy. In addition, we were also able to detect high-velocity emission on the red and blue sides of the [CII] emission line that is not consistent with disk rotation and traces a gaseous outflow. We derived an outflow mass Mout = 3.5 × 108 M⊙, and a mass outflow rate in the range Ṁout = 1800 − 4500 M⊙ yr−1. The implied Ėout ∼ 0.0005 − 0.001 Lbol is in agreement with the values observed for ionised winds. For the first time, we mapped a spatially resolved water vapour disk through the H2O v = 0 3(2, 2) − 3(1, 3) emission line detected at νobs = 274.074 GHz, whose kinematic properties and size are broadly consistent with those of the [CII] disk. The luminosity ratio LH2O/LTIR = 1.4 × 10−5 is consistent with line excitation by dust-reprocessed star formation in the interstellar medium of the host galaxy.
Settore FIS/05 - Astronomia e Astrofisica
Fondi MUR
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11384/125162
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