Tau plays a central role in a group of neurodegenerative disorders collectively named tauopathies. Despite the wide range of diverse symptoms at the onset and during the progression of the pathology, all tauopathies share two common hallmarks, namely the misfolding and aggregation of Tau protein and progressive synaptic dysfunctions. Tau aggregation correlates with cognitive decline and behavioural impairment. The mechanistic link between Tau misfolding and the synaptic dysfunction is still unknown, but this correlation is well established in the human brain and also in tauopathy mouse models. At the onset of the pathology, Tau undergoes post-translational modifications (PTMs) inducing the detachment from the cytoskeleton and its release in the cytoplasm as a soluble monomer. In this condition, the physiological enrichment in the axon is definitely disrupted, resulting in Tau relocalization in the cell soma and in dendrites. Subsequently, Tau aggregates into toxic oligomers and amyloidogenic forms that disrupt synaptic homeostasis and function, resulting in neuronal degeneration. The involvement of Tau in synaptic transmission alteration in tauopathies has been extensively reviewed. Here, we will focus on non-canonical Tau functions mediating synapse dysfunction.

Non-Canonical Roles of Tau and Their Contribution to Synaptic Dysfunction

Siano, Giacomo;Origlia, Nicola;Cattaneo, Antonino;Di Primio, Cristina
2021

Abstract

Tau plays a central role in a group of neurodegenerative disorders collectively named tauopathies. Despite the wide range of diverse symptoms at the onset and during the progression of the pathology, all tauopathies share two common hallmarks, namely the misfolding and aggregation of Tau protein and progressive synaptic dysfunctions. Tau aggregation correlates with cognitive decline and behavioural impairment. The mechanistic link between Tau misfolding and the synaptic dysfunction is still unknown, but this correlation is well established in the human brain and also in tauopathy mouse models. At the onset of the pathology, Tau undergoes post-translational modifications (PTMs) inducing the detachment from the cytoskeleton and its release in the cytoplasm as a soluble monomer. In this condition, the physiological enrichment in the axon is definitely disrupted, resulting in Tau relocalization in the cell soma and in dendrites. Subsequently, Tau aggregates into toxic oligomers and amyloidogenic forms that disrupt synaptic homeostasis and function, resulting in neuronal degeneration. The involvement of Tau in synaptic transmission alteration in tauopathies has been extensively reviewed. Here, we will focus on non-canonical Tau functions mediating synapse dysfunction.
2021
Settore BIO/09 - Fisiologia
Tau; Tau oligomers; aggregation; nuclear Tau; synaptic dysfunction
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11384/126844
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