: Graphene-based nanomaterials have attracted significant attention in the field of nanomedicine due to their unique atomic arrangement which allows for manifold applications. However, their inherent high hydrophobicity poses challenges in biological systems, thereby limiting their usage in biomedical areas. To address this limitation, one approach involves introducing oxygen functional groups on graphene surfaces, resulting in the formation of graphene oxide (GO). This modification enables improved dispersion, enhanced stability, reduced toxicity, and tunable surface properties. In this review, we aim to explore the interactions between GO and the biological fluids in the context of theranostics, shedding light on the formation of the "protein corona" (PC) i.e., the protein-enriched layer that formed around nanosystems when exposed to blood. The presence of the PC alters the surface properties and biological identity of GO, thus influencing its behavior and performance in various applications. By investigating this phenomenon, we gain insights into the bio-nano interactions that occur and their biological implications for different intents such as nucleic acid and drug delivery, active cell targeting, and modulation of cell signalling pathways. Additionally, we discuss diagnostic applications utilizing biocoronated GO and personalized PC analysis, with a particular focus on the detection of cancer biomarkers. By exploring these cutting-edge advancements, this comprehensive review provides valuable insights into the rapidly evolving field of GO-based nanomedicine for theranostic applications.

The influence of protein corona on Graphene Oxide: implications for biomedical theranostics

Cardarelli, Francesco;
2023

Abstract

: Graphene-based nanomaterials have attracted significant attention in the field of nanomedicine due to their unique atomic arrangement which allows for manifold applications. However, their inherent high hydrophobicity poses challenges in biological systems, thereby limiting their usage in biomedical areas. To address this limitation, one approach involves introducing oxygen functional groups on graphene surfaces, resulting in the formation of graphene oxide (GO). This modification enables improved dispersion, enhanced stability, reduced toxicity, and tunable surface properties. In this review, we aim to explore the interactions between GO and the biological fluids in the context of theranostics, shedding light on the formation of the "protein corona" (PC) i.e., the protein-enriched layer that formed around nanosystems when exposed to blood. The presence of the PC alters the surface properties and biological identity of GO, thus influencing its behavior and performance in various applications. By investigating this phenomenon, we gain insights into the bio-nano interactions that occur and their biological implications for different intents such as nucleic acid and drug delivery, active cell targeting, and modulation of cell signalling pathways. Additionally, we discuss diagnostic applications utilizing biocoronated GO and personalized PC analysis, with a particular focus on the detection of cancer biomarkers. By exploring these cutting-edge advancements, this comprehensive review provides valuable insights into the rapidly evolving field of GO-based nanomedicine for theranostic applications.
2023
Settore FIS/07 - Fisica Applicata(Beni Culturali, Ambientali, Biol.e Medicin)
Graphene oxide; Nanotechnology; Protein corona; Theranostics
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11384/133443
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