: There is experimental evidence that solid mixtures of the rhodium dimer [Cp*RhCl2]2 and benzo[h] quinoline (BHQ) produce two different polymorphic molecular cocrystals called 4α and 4β under ball milling conditions. The addition of NaOAc to the mixture leads to the formation of the rhodacycle [Cp*Rh-(BHQ)Cl], where the central Rh atom retains its tetracoordinate character. Isolate 4β reacts with NaOAc leading to the same rhodacycle while isolate 4α does not under the same conditions. We show that the puzzling difference in reactivity between the two cocrystals can be traced back to fundamental aspects of the intermolecular interactions between the BHQ and [Cp*RhCl2]2 fragments in the crystalline environment. To support this view, we report a number of descriptors of the nature and strength of chemical bonds and intermolecular interactions in the extended solids and in a cluster model. We calculate formal quantum mechanical descriptors based on electronic structure, electron density, and binding and interaction energies including an energy decomposition analysis. Without exception, all descriptors point to 4β being a transient structure higher in energy than 4α with larger local and global electrophilic and nucleophilic powers, a more favorable spatial and energetic distribution of the frontier orbitals, and a more fragile crystal structure.

Interactions and reactivity in crystalline intermediates of mechanochemical cyclorhodation reactions

Gómez, Sara;Cappelli, Chiara;
2024

Abstract

: There is experimental evidence that solid mixtures of the rhodium dimer [Cp*RhCl2]2 and benzo[h] quinoline (BHQ) produce two different polymorphic molecular cocrystals called 4α and 4β under ball milling conditions. The addition of NaOAc to the mixture leads to the formation of the rhodacycle [Cp*Rh-(BHQ)Cl], where the central Rh atom retains its tetracoordinate character. Isolate 4β reacts with NaOAc leading to the same rhodacycle while isolate 4α does not under the same conditions. We show that the puzzling difference in reactivity between the two cocrystals can be traced back to fundamental aspects of the intermolecular interactions between the BHQ and [Cp*RhCl2]2 fragments in the crystalline environment. To support this view, we report a number of descriptors of the nature and strength of chemical bonds and intermolecular interactions in the extended solids and in a cluster model. We calculate formal quantum mechanical descriptors based on electronic structure, electron density, and binding and interaction energies including an energy decomposition analysis. Without exception, all descriptors point to 4β being a transient structure higher in energy than 4α with larger local and global electrophilic and nucleophilic powers, a more favorable spatial and energetic distribution of the frontier orbitals, and a more fragile crystal structure.
2024
Settore CHIM/02 - Chimica Fisica
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11384/137107
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