We study cosmic metal enrichment via AMR hydrodynamical simulations in a (10 Mpc/h)$^3$ volume following the Pop III-Pop II transition and for different Pop III IMFs. We have analyzed the joint evolution of metal enrichment on galactic and intergalactic scales at z=6 and z=4. Galaxies account for <9% of the baryonic mass; the remaining gas resides in the diffuse phases: (a) voids, i.e. regions with extremely low density ($\Delta$<1), (b) the true intergalactic medium (IGM, 1<$\Delta$<10) and (c) the circumgalactic medium (CGM, 10<$\Delta<10^2.5$), the interface between the IGM and galaxies. By z=6 a galactic mass-metallicity relation is established. At z=4, galaxies with a stellar mass $M_*=10^8.5M_\odot$ show log(O/H)+12=8.19, consistent with observations. The total amount of heavy elements rises from $\Omega^SFH_Z=1.52\, 10^-6$ at z=6 to 8.05 $10^-6$ at z=4. Metals in galaxies make up to ~0.89 of such budget at z=6; this fraction increases to ~0.95 at z=4. At z=6 (z=4) the remaining metals are distributed in CGM/IGM/voids with the following mass fractions: 0.06/0.04/0.01 (0.03/0.02/0.01). Analogously to galaxies, at z=4 a density-metallicity ($\Delta$-Z) relation is in place for the diffuse phases: the IGM/voids have a spatially uniform metallicity, Z~$10^-3.5$Zsun; in the CGM Z steeply rises with density up to ~$10^-2$Zsun. In all diffuse phases a considerable fraction of metals is in a warm/hot (T>$10^4.5$K) state. Due to these physical conditions, CIV absorption line experiments can probe only ~2% of the total carbon present in the IGM/CGM; however, metal absorption line spectra are very effective tools to study reionization. Finally, the Pop III star formation history is almost insensitive to the chosen Pop III IMF. Pop III stars are preferentially formed in truly pristine (Z=0) gas pockets, well outside polluted regions created by previous star formation episodes.

Simulating cosmic metal enrichment by the first galaxies

PALLOTTINI, ANDREA;FERRARA, ANDREA;GALLERANI, SIMONA;SALVADORI, Stefania;D'ODORICO, Valentina
2014

Abstract

We study cosmic metal enrichment via AMR hydrodynamical simulations in a (10 Mpc/h)$^3$ volume following the Pop III-Pop II transition and for different Pop III IMFs. We have analyzed the joint evolution of metal enrichment on galactic and intergalactic scales at z=6 and z=4. Galaxies account for <9% of the baryonic mass; the remaining gas resides in the diffuse phases: (a) voids, i.e. regions with extremely low density ($\Delta$<1), (b) the true intergalactic medium (IGM, 1<$\Delta$<10) and (c) the circumgalactic medium (CGM, 10<$\Delta<10^2.5$), the interface between the IGM and galaxies. By z=6 a galactic mass-metallicity relation is established. At z=4, galaxies with a stellar mass $M_*=10^8.5M_\odot$ show log(O/H)+12=8.19, consistent with observations. The total amount of heavy elements rises from $\Omega^SFH_Z=1.52\, 10^-6$ at z=6 to 8.05 $10^-6$ at z=4. Metals in galaxies make up to ~0.89 of such budget at z=6; this fraction increases to ~0.95 at z=4. At z=6 (z=4) the remaining metals are distributed in CGM/IGM/voids with the following mass fractions: 0.06/0.04/0.01 (0.03/0.02/0.01). Analogously to galaxies, at z=4 a density-metallicity ($\Delta$-Z) relation is in place for the diffuse phases: the IGM/voids have a spatially uniform metallicity, Z~$10^-3.5$Zsun; in the CGM Z steeply rises with density up to ~$10^-2$Zsun. In all diffuse phases a considerable fraction of metals is in a warm/hot (T>$10^4.5$K) state. Due to these physical conditions, CIV absorption line experiments can probe only ~2% of the total carbon present in the IGM/CGM; however, metal absorption line spectra are very effective tools to study reionization. Finally, the Pop III star formation history is almost insensitive to the chosen Pop III IMF. Pop III stars are preferentially formed in truly pristine (Z=0) gas pockets, well outside polluted regions created by previous star formation episodes.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11384/63763
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