Intracellular chloride ([Cl-]i) and pH (pHi) are fundamental regulators of neuronal excitability. They exert wide-ranging effects on synaptic signaling and plasticity and on development and disorders of the brain. The ideal technique to elucidate the underlying ionic mechanisms is quantitative and combined two-photon imaging of [Cl-]i and pHi, but this has never been performed at the cellular level in vivo. Here, by using a genetically encoded fluorescent sensor that includes a spectroscopic reference (an element insensitive to Cl- and pH), we show that ratiometric imaging is strongly affected by the optical properties of the brain. We have designed a method that fully corrects for this source of error. Parallel measurements of [Cl-]i and pHi at the single-cell level in the mouse cortex showed the in vivo presence of the widely discussed developmental fall in [Cl-]i and the role of the K-Cl cotransporter KCC2 in this process. Then, we introduce a dynamic two-photon excitation protocol to simultaneously determine the changes of pHi and [Cl-]i in response to hypercapnia and seizure activity.
|Titolo:||Simultaneous two-photon imaging of intracellular chloride concentration and pH in mouse pyramidal neurons in vivo|
RATTO, GIAN MICHELE (Corresponding)
|Data di pubblicazione:||2017|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|