2-Thiouracil (TU), an antithyroid drug, is receiving growing interest as a specific tumor marker for malignant melanoma, owing to its capability of being selectively accumulated into active melanin-producing tissues. However, up until now, the molecular mechanism of TU uptake by growing melanin has remained largely unknown. In an attempt to fill this gap, we have investigated the effect of TU on the tyrosinase catalyzed oxidation of tyrosine. At a concentration of 0.5 mM, TU was found to totally inhibit melanin formation by tyrosinase catalyzed oxidation of 0.25 mM tyrosine in phosphate buffer at pH 6.8. Polarographical monitoring of oxygen consumption under conditions of complete suppression of melanogenesis revealed a significant tyrosinase activity, with TU acting as a modest non-competitive inhibitor of the enzyme (K(i) = 0.6 mM). HPLC and TLC analysis of the tyrosine-tyrosinase reaction in the presence of excess TU showed that the substrate is progressively consumed and a major hitherto unknown product (lambda-max = 284 nm), positive to ninhydrin and ferric chloride, is concomitantly formed. This was isolated by repeated gel filtration chromatography of the reaction mixture on Sephadex G-10 and was formulated as the TU-dopa adduct 3,4-dihydroxy-6-(4'-hydroxypyrimidinyl-2'-thio)phenylalanine by spectral analysis. These results suggest that selective TU incorporation in pigmented melanomas and other melanin-producing systems is due to the covalent binding to dopaquinone, produced by tyrosinase catalyzed oxidation of tyrosine.

Selective uptake of 2-thiouracil into melanin producing systems depends on chemical binding to enzymatically generated dopaquinone

M. D'ISCHIA;
1990

Abstract

2-Thiouracil (TU), an antithyroid drug, is receiving growing interest as a specific tumor marker for malignant melanoma, owing to its capability of being selectively accumulated into active melanin-producing tissues. However, up until now, the molecular mechanism of TU uptake by growing melanin has remained largely unknown. In an attempt to fill this gap, we have investigated the effect of TU on the tyrosinase catalyzed oxidation of tyrosine. At a concentration of 0.5 mM, TU was found to totally inhibit melanin formation by tyrosinase catalyzed oxidation of 0.25 mM tyrosine in phosphate buffer at pH 6.8. Polarographical monitoring of oxygen consumption under conditions of complete suppression of melanogenesis revealed a significant tyrosinase activity, with TU acting as a modest non-competitive inhibitor of the enzyme (K(i) = 0.6 mM). HPLC and TLC analysis of the tyrosine-tyrosinase reaction in the presence of excess TU showed that the substrate is progressively consumed and a major hitherto unknown product (lambda-max = 284 nm), positive to ninhydrin and ferric chloride, is concomitantly formed. This was isolated by repeated gel filtration chromatography of the reaction mixture on Sephadex G-10 and was formulated as the TU-dopa adduct 3,4-dihydroxy-6-(4'-hydroxypyrimidinyl-2'-thio)phenylalanine by spectral analysis. These results suggest that selective TU incorporation in pigmented melanomas and other melanin-producing systems is due to the covalent binding to dopaquinone, produced by tyrosinase catalyzed oxidation of tyrosine.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11384/84175
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