Context. The discovery of hundreds of quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) in the first gigayear of the Universe powered by already grown supermassive black holes (SMBHs) challenges our knowledge of SMBH formation. In particular, investigations of z  >  6 QSOs that present notable properties can provide unique information on the physics of fast SMBH growth in the early Universe. Aims. We present the results of follow-up observations of the z  =  6.515 radio-quiet QSO PSO167-13, which is interacting with a close companion galaxy. The PSO167-13 system has recently been proposed to host the first heavily obscured X-ray source at high redshift. The goals of these new observations are to confirm the existence of the X-ray source and to investigate the rest-frame UV properties of the QSO. Methods. We observed the PSO167-13 system with Chandra/ACIS-S (177 ks) and obtained new spectroscopic observations (7.2 h) with Magellan/FIRE. Results. No significant X-ray emission is detected from the PSO167-13 system, suggesting that the obscured X-ray source previously tentatively detected was either due to a strong background fluctuation or is highly variable. The upper limit (90% confidence level) on the X-ray emission of PSO167-13 (L2-10  keV  <  8.3 × 1043  erg  s-1) is the lowest available for a z  >  6 QSO. The ratio between the X-ray and UV luminosity of αox  <  -1.95 makes PSO167-13 a strong outlier from the αox - LUV and LX - Lbol relations. In particular, its X-ray emission is more than six times weaker than the expectation based on its UV luminosity. The new Magellan/FIRE spectrum of PSO167-13 is strongly affected by unfavorable sky conditions, but the tentatively detected C IV and Mg II emission lines appear strongly blueshifted. Conclusions. The most plausible explanations for the X-ray weakness of PSO167-13 are intrinsic weakness or small-scale absorption by Compton-thick material. The possible strong blueshift of its emission lines hints at the presence of nuclear winds, which could be related to its X-ray weakness.

Chandra and Magellan /FIRE follow-up observations of PSO167-13: An X-ray weak QSO at z = 6.515

Vito F.;Gilli R.;Comastri A.;Gallerani S.;
2021

Abstract

Context. The discovery of hundreds of quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) in the first gigayear of the Universe powered by already grown supermassive black holes (SMBHs) challenges our knowledge of SMBH formation. In particular, investigations of z  >  6 QSOs that present notable properties can provide unique information on the physics of fast SMBH growth in the early Universe. Aims. We present the results of follow-up observations of the z  =  6.515 radio-quiet QSO PSO167-13, which is interacting with a close companion galaxy. The PSO167-13 system has recently been proposed to host the first heavily obscured X-ray source at high redshift. The goals of these new observations are to confirm the existence of the X-ray source and to investigate the rest-frame UV properties of the QSO. Methods. We observed the PSO167-13 system with Chandra/ACIS-S (177 ks) and obtained new spectroscopic observations (7.2 h) with Magellan/FIRE. Results. No significant X-ray emission is detected from the PSO167-13 system, suggesting that the obscured X-ray source previously tentatively detected was either due to a strong background fluctuation or is highly variable. The upper limit (90% confidence level) on the X-ray emission of PSO167-13 (L2-10  keV  <  8.3 × 1043  erg  s-1) is the lowest available for a z  >  6 QSO. The ratio between the X-ray and UV luminosity of αox  <  -1.95 makes PSO167-13 a strong outlier from the αox - LUV and LX - Lbol relations. In particular, its X-ray emission is more than six times weaker than the expectation based on its UV luminosity. The new Magellan/FIRE spectrum of PSO167-13 is strongly affected by unfavorable sky conditions, but the tentatively detected C IV and Mg II emission lines appear strongly blueshifted. Conclusions. The most plausible explanations for the X-ray weakness of PSO167-13 are intrinsic weakness or small-scale absorption by Compton-thick material. The possible strong blueshift of its emission lines hints at the presence of nuclear winds, which could be related to its X-ray weakness.
Settore FIS/05 - Astronomia e Astrofisica
Early Universe; Galaxies: Active; Galaxies: High-redshift; Galaxies: Individual: J167.6415-134960; Methods: Observational; X-rays: Individuals: J167.6415-134960; astro-ph.GA; astro-ph.GA
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11384/110970
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